What is trachoma?

Trachoma is the world’s leading infectious cause of blindness, and is part of a group of conditions known as neglected tropical diseases (often referred to as NTDs).

A close-up of a woman having her eyes checked for trachoma.

Latest: trachoma has been eliminated in Benin and Mali

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Trachoma starts off as a bacterial infection that’s a bit like conjunctivitis, and can be easily treated.

But if it’s not, over time it causes scarring to the eyelid that pulls the eyelashes inward, so with every blink they scrape against the eye. This advanced form of trachoma is called trichiasis, and the pain can be so intense that many people resort to pulling out their eyelashes to reduce the agony of blinking. Over time, if it’s not treated, trichiasis can lead to blindness.

What causes trachoma?

The disease thrives where there are water shortages, poor sanitation and infestations of flies. It’s caused by repeated infection with bacteria known as ‘chlamydia trachomatis’, and it spreads through contact with infected flies and via hands, clothes or bedding that have been in contact with an infected person.

The agony and disability of blinding trachoma can lead to a cycle of poverty, limiting many people’s access to health services, education and employment.

Did you know these five things about trachoma? Watch our animation to find out more about the disease.

At least 39
countries count trachoma as a public health problem
103 million
people are at risk of going blind from trachoma
1.5 million
people are blind or visually impaired because of the disease

How we helped to eliminate trachoma in The Gambia

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What are the symptoms of trachoma?

The most common signs that a person is suffering from trachoma include:

  • Discharge from the eyes
  • Irritated eyes
  • Redness

Because the infection spreads via hands, clothes and bedding, it disproportionately affects women and children: globally women are 1.8 times more likely than men to be blinded by the disease. If trachoma is not treated, it can lead to trichiasis.

What is trichiasis?

Trichiasis, sometimes called advanced trachoma, is when the eyes get inflamed after repeated trachoma infections. Scar tissue builds up on the inside of the eyelid, making the eyelid tight and pulling the eyelashes inwards. When the eyelashes rub the cornea, it causes immense pain and can lead to blindness.

An illustration from Nicholas Nickleby showing character Wackford Squeers fighting with a man as a crowd looks on.

Did you know?

Charles Dickens‘ novel Nicholas Nickleby was inspired by a 19th-century boarding school devastated by trachoma.

The history of trachoma

How is trachoma treated?

A child in Senegal holds antibiotic tablets in his hand.


Antibiotic tablets, donated by pharmaceutical company Pfizer, are used to treat the infection. Treatment is usually repeated annually for up to five years.

Surgeons operate on a trachoma patient.

Trichiasis surgery

Advanced trachoma can cause the eyelashes to turn inwards. An operation stops the eyelashes rubbing against the eyeball, and can stop people going blind.

A boy washes his face to prevent the spread of trachoma infection.

Cleanliness and hygiene

Communities are encouraged to change behaviour that can put them at risk of trachoma, and are taught about the importance of good hygiene and sanitation.

Learn more about the history of trachoma

Read our trachoma timeline

Our work to treat trachoma

Our aim is to eliminate trachoma in the countries where we work, and this goal is now closer than ever.

In May 2023, Benin and Mali announced that they had eliminated the disease. Yet there are still more than 40 countries that count trachoma as a public health problem, where people are at risk of being blinded by trichiasis.

We help to control the impact and spread of trachoma by implementing the World Health Organization’s SAFE strategy: the acronym describes the four methods used to control the disease.

Trachoma prevention: the SAFE strategy

  • Surgery: to stop eyelashes from rubbing against the eyeball and helping to halt the cycle of repeated infection that can lead to blindness.
  • Antibiotics: medication, distributed via mass drug administration, treats the trachoma infection and reduces the spread of the disease. It is usually repeated annually for up to five years.
  • Facial cleanliness: teaching local communities the importance of face washing, and encouraging good hygiene to prevent the infection being spread.
  • Environmental improvements: to improve access to water and sanitation to reduce exposure and re-infection, and eliminate conditions in which flies breed.

You can help save someone’s sight

I would like to make a donation

Could protect 212 people from blinding trachoma.

Could pay for an operation to treat advanced trachoma.

Could protect two entire communities from blinding trachoma.

We're sorry, but the minimum donation we can take is €3
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Could protect 88 people from blinding trachoma.

could protect a community against blinding trachoma.

could cover the cost of one sight-saving operation for a person with advanced trachoma.

We're sorry, but the minimum donation we can take is €3
We're sorry, but we cannot process a donation of this size online. Please contact us on [email protected] for assistance donating over €10,000